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  • Robert Hulet, CBA, CVA

Understanding Cash Flow to Equity (CFE) in Financial Analysis

Cash Flow to Equity Defined

In the realm of finance, particularly in the evaluation of company performance and investment decisions, various metrics and indicators are utilized to assess the financial health and profitability of businesses. One such metric that holds significant importance is Cash Flow to Equity (CFE). CFE is commonly used in business valuations under the Capitalization of Earnings method.  CFE is a vital measure that provides insight into the cash generated and distributed to a company's equity shareholders after accounting for expenses, investments, and debt obligations. In this blog, I will delve into the concept of Cash Flow to Equity, its calculation, and its significance in financial analysis; particularly in business valuations.

What is Cash Flow to Equity (CFE)?

Cash Flow to Equity represents the net cash flows available to a company's equity shareholders after all expenses, re-investments, and debt obligations have been met. It essentially reflects the amount of cash that is available to be distributed to shareholders in the form of dividends or retained earnings. CFE is a crucial indicator as it indicates the company's ability to reward its equity investors while sustaining its operations and growth initiatives. It provides insight as to how look it will take for an investor (or new shareholder) to be paid back their original investment.

Calculating Cash Flow to Equity:

The calculation of Cash Flow to Equity involves several components and can be derived from the company's cash flow statement and balance sheet. The general formula for calculating CFE is as follows:

CFE = Net Income + Depreciation & Amortization - Capital Expenditures - Change in Working Capital - Debt Repayments + Net Borrowing

Here is a breakdown of each component:

  • Net Income: This represents the company's profit after accounting for all expenses, taxes, and interest payments.

  • Depreciation & Amortization: Non-cash expenses that represent the reduction in value of tangible and intangible assets over time.

  • Capital Expenditures: The amount spent by the company on acquiring or maintaining fixed assets.

  • Change in Working Capital: Refers to the change in the company's current assets and liabilities excluding cash and debt.

  • Debt Repayments: The principal amount of debt that the company repays during the period.

  • Net Borrowing: Represents the net amount of new debt raised or repaid during the period.

Significance of Cash Flow to Equity:

  1. Investment Decisions: CFE is a critical metric for investors evaluating potential investments in a company. A positive CFE indicates that the company is generating enough cash to reward its shareholders, which is typically viewed favorably by investors.

  2. Dividend Policy: For existing shareholders, CFE provides insights into the company's ability to sustain dividend payments. A consistent and positive CFE suggests that the company can continue to distribute dividends or even increase them over time.

  3. Financial Health: CFE is also indicative of the company's financial health and stability. A healthy CFE reflects efficient management of cash flows, prudent investment decisions, and adequate liquidity to meet financial obligations.

  4. Comparison Tool: Comparing CFE across different periods or against competitors can help analysts assess the company's performance relative to its past performance or industry peers.

  5. Determining Business Value: By applying a capitalization rate that is applicable to the business, respective of its size and the market industry, the overall business value can be determined under the Income Approach.


Cash Flow to Equity is a fundamental metric in financial analysis that provides valuable insights into a company's ability to generate cash for its equity shareholders and determine shareholder value. By understanding and analyzing CFE, investors and analysts can make informed decisions regarding investments, dividend expectations, and overall financial health. It serves as a key tool in assessing the sustainability and profitability of a company in the long run.



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